Garlic (Allium sativum), vegetable condiments in the genus Allium, is characterized by the presence of the original sulfur responsible for its odor and flavor Typed: the alliin (or sulfoxide of allylcystéine: C6H11O3NS) and derivatives. Present in intact garlic bulb, alliin is practically devoid of odor. But once you cut or crush a clove (a “suckers”) garlic odor is powerful: indeed, during the bruising of plant cells, an enzyme specific garlic, alliinase bringing it into contact with alliin. The latter is then broken down into pyruvic acid and allicin, which is the very essence of the fragrant clove of garlic cut or crushed.
During heating, becomes allicin in turn, provides new and sulfur compounds which mixture is sometimes called «garlic oil». Allicin may also give rise to a newly described substance, called «E ajoene», which has very interesting physiological properties (see The nutritional and dietary). These substances restrict the sulfur tolerance of garlic in people with weak digestive systems, and are responsible for smell after eating allium. Garlic is a plant relatively hydrated: it contains an average of 64% water (cons 85-90% and more in most vegetables). Among the components of conventional fresh vegetables, carbohydrates in the lead. Garlic contains high levels: 27.5%. This is essentially the original complex carbohydrates, especially fructans, fructose polymers that serve as a reserve for the sugar plant. We also find simple sugars like fructose and glucose, sucrose and a little. The protein (6% in garlic) have the distinction of being rich in sulfur amino acids (cysteine, methionine). Fibers reach 3 g per 100 g. They are composed of pectin and mucilaginous substances (responsible for the soft consistency of the cooked garlic), as well as cellulose and hemicellulose. Different vitamins are present: B vitamins, vitamin C and vitamin E in small quantities. We can notice the level of vitamin C, about 30 mg per 100 g. The supply of minerals is very diverse, with a dominant potassium and sulfur, and the presence of many trace elements: zinc, manganese, boron, copper, nickel, iodine, etc.., Involved in multiple cellular metabolism . Note the presence of selenium, relatively rare in foods that we know about the antioxidant properties and beneficial effect against premature cell aging. Garlic contains 7-20 mg per 100 g, a significant rate. The energy intake of garlic to 135 kcal (564 BTU) per 100 g, but given the usually consumed portions – on the order of a few grams to a «pod» – it is not likely to result. Note: Other substances have been identified in garlic, which are found at very low doses: prostaglandins, acids, phenols, steroids, polyphenols, flavonoids.
THE NUTRITIONAL AND DIETARY
Researchers are actively studying the nutritional and pharmacological properties of garlic. There are many, and some seem particularly promising, especially as regards the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The diuretic This action of garlic is traditionally accepted, and seems to be focused on the elimination of water (instead of urea or sodium). It is due to the ratio of potassium to sodium high, and the presence of fructans, substances with strong diuretic properties. The antibacterial Long been recognized (and shown experimentally by Pasteur in 1858), this action is especially gram + as well as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. This property would be the result of action of allicin (and its derivatives). The action on the cardiovascular system – Hypotensive Garlic contains small amounts-in-a hypotensive substance, prostaglandin PGA 1, and is capable of lowering the blood pressure of laboratory animals. Regular consumption of garlic would, in humans, to observe similar results. – Anti-platelet aggregation and anti-cholesterol Garlic has beneficial effects on blood flow and blood cholesterol. The consumption of garlic reduced platelet aggregation effect, keeps the blood a satisfactory fluidity, and prevents clots from forming reactions. This is due to the presence of some sulfur compounds: methyl trisulfide, allyl trisulfide, and «ajoene E». Moreover, according to recent studies, eating a clove of raw garlic per day (approximately 3 grams) would provide a significant lowering of the order-20% – of the blood cholesterol, particularly the “bad” LDL cholesterol. On the walls of blood vessels, garlic inhibits cell proliferation at the origin of the first lesions of atherosclerosis. Finally, garlic may decrease the synthesis of triglycerides, thereby obstructing the development of a possible cardio-vascular. Note again: Recent Japanese studies, garlic has a particularly powerful effect allergy: garlic extracts decreased by 90% over the cellular response after exposure to an allergen. In this area, he is eight times more active than the onion, and four times more than the leek. Were able to show that garlic extract acts as an antioxidant (as well as vitamin E), thereby protecting cells against free radical reactions. Garlic may have, in addition to its antimicrobial and antibacterial, an anti-tumor vis-à-vis certain cancer cells. In animals, sulfur derivatives of garlic (and onion) can inhibit the conversion of certain chemical compounds carcinogens, and thereby prevent the onset of cancerous tumors. In men, regular consumption of garlic (or garlic extract) seems to reinforce the body’s immune defenses.
THE AVERAGE COMPOSITION TABLE
Composition moyenne * pour 100 g net Composants(g) Glucides: 27.5 Protides: 6.00 Lipides: 0.10 Eau: 64.0 Fibres alimentaires: 3.00 Minéraux (mg) Phosphore: 144.0 Calcium: 38.00 Magnésium: 21.00 Soufre: 200.0 Sodium: 10.00 Chlore: 30.00 Bore: 0.400 Fer: 1.400 Cuivre: 0.150 Zinc: 1.000 Manganèse: 0.460 Nickel: 0.010 Molybdène: 0.070 Iode: 0.003 Sélénium: 0.020 Vitamines (mg) Vitamine C (ac. ascorbique): 30.00 Vitamine B1 (thiamine): 0.200 Vitamine B2 (riboflavine): 0.080 Vitamine B3 ou PP (nicotinamide): 0.650 Vitamine B5 (ac. panothénique): 0.600 Vitamine B6 (pyridoxine): 1.200 Vitamine E (tocophérols): 0.100 Apports énergétiques KCalories: 135.0
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