Garlic (Allium sativum), vegetable condiments in the genus Allium, is characterized by the presence of the original sulfur responsible for its odor and flavor Typed: the alliin (or sulfoxide of allylcystéine: C6H11O3NS) and derivatives.
Present in intact garlic bulb, alliin is practically devoid of odor. But once you cut or crush a clove (a “suckers”) garlic odor is powerful: indeed, during the bruising of plant cells, an enzyme specific garlic, alliinase bringing it into contact with alliin. The latter is then broken down into pyruvic acid and allicin, which is the very essence of the fragrant clove of garlic cut or crushed.
During heating, becomes allicin in turn, provides new and sulfur compounds which mixture is sometimes called «garlic oil». Allicin may also give rise to a newly described substance, called «E ajoene», which has very interesting physiological properties (see The nutritional and dietary).
These substances restrict the sulfur tolerance of garlic in people with weak digestive systems, and are responsible for smell after eating allium.
Garlic is a plant relatively hydrated: it contains an average of 64% water (cons 85-90% and more in most vegetables).
Among the components of conventional fresh vegetables, carbohydrates in the lead. Garlic contains high levels: 27.5%. This is essentially the original complex carbohydrates, especially fructans, fructose polymers that serve as a reserve for the sugar plant. We also find simple sugars like fructose and glucose, sucrose and a little.
The protein (6% in garlic) have the distinction of being rich in sulfur amino acids (cysteine, methionine).
Fibers reach 3 g per 100 g. They are composed of pectin and mucilaginous substances (responsible for the soft consistency of the cooked garlic), as well as cellulose and hemicellulose.
Different vitamins are present: B vitamins, vitamin C and vitamin E in small quantities. We can notice the level of vitamin C, about 30 mg per 100 g.
The supply of minerals is very diverse, with a dominant potassium and sulfur, and the presence of many trace elements: zinc, manganese, boron, copper, nickel, iodine, etc.., Involved in multiple cellular metabolism . Note the presence of selenium, relatively rare in foods that we know about the antioxidant properties and beneficial effect against premature cell aging. Garlic contains 7-20 mg per 100 g, a significant rate.
The energy intake of garlic to 135 kcal (564 BTU) per 100 g, but given the usually consumed portions – on the order of a few grams to a «pod» – it is not likely to result.
Note: Other substances have been identified in garlic, which are found at very low doses: prostaglandins, acids, phenols, steroids, polyphenols, flavonoids.